When you need something to be produced, not just designed, CAM – or computer-aided manufacturing – is what you need. Almost all kind of machines require some sort of control systems to operate. For example, manual control, automatic control, computer control or remote control. When it comes to mass production, machines need to iterate precise, speedy and automatic actions continuously.
Since about 1970, manufacturing firms have seen a growing trend towards the use of computers to communicate instructions directly to the manufacturing machines. Therefore, CAM in simple language is the automation of the manufacturing process with the help of software and computer-controlled machinery. A CAM system usually tends to control the production process through different degrees of automation. Because all of the manufacturing processes in a CAM system is computer-controlled, a high degree of precision can be achieved that is not possible with a human interface. The CAM system, for example, sets the toolpath and executes accurate machine operations based on the imported design. Some CAM systems can also bring in additional automation by also keeping track of materials and automating the ordering process, as well as tasks such as tool replacement.
Three aspects are required for a CAM system to function:
- Software that instructs a machine on how to make any product by generating tool paths.
- Machinery that can turn raw material into a finished product.
- Post Processing that converts tool paths into a language machines can understand.
Since the age of the Industrial Revolution, the manufacturing process has undergone many dramatic changes. Introduction of computer-aided manufacturing is one of those most dramatic changes. Eventually, the manufacturers became capable enough where there are no designs too tough for any capable machinist shop to handle. The technology that evolved from the numerically controlled machines of the 1950’s, that were directed by a set of coded instructions contained in a punched paper tape. Today that technology can control virtually any sort of manufacturing process.
What is the difference between CAM and CAD?
Before we can talk further about CAM, we should talk about CAD.
Computer-aided manufacturing is commonly linked to computer-aided design (CAD) systems. CAD focuses on the design of a product or a part. How is it supposed to look, how should it function? CAM focuses on how to make it. Every engineering process commences in the world of CAD. Engineers can make either a 2D or 3D drawing. Hence, CAD design is called a model and contains a set of physical properties that will be used by a CAM system.
When CAD completes its designing, it’s then fed into CAM. This is traditionally done by exporting a CAD file and then importing it into CAM software. Once your CAD model is imported into CAM, the software starts preparing the model for machining. Machining is the controlled process of transforming raw material into a defined shape through actions like cutting, drilling, or boring.
How does CAM for PCB work?
CAM software prepares a model for machining by working through several actions, including:
- Checking for any geometrical errors impacting the manufacturing process.
- Creating a toolpath for the model, it is basically a set of coordinates the machine will follow during the machining process.
- Setting any required machine parameters including cutting speed, voltage, cut/pierce height
- Configuring nesting where the CAM system will decide the best orientation for a part to maximize machining efficiency.
Computer-aided manufacturing and computer-aided design together facilitate mass customization. Without CAM, and the CAD process, customization would be a time-consuming, manual and costly process.
And how is it better with CAD/CAM?
It is the process of creating small batches of products that are custom designed to suit each particular client. CAD software makes customization heck-free and allows rapid design changes. The automatic controls of the CAM system make it possible to adjust the machinery automatically for each different order.
Therefore, everything seems pretty impressive until now. Once CAD prepares the model for machining, simply all of that information gets fed into the machine to physically produce that very part. But how do you think is the machine instructed? We convert all of our machining information to a language called G-code. This is the set of instructions that controls a machine’s actions including speed, feed rate, coolants, etc.
G-code is easy to read once you understand the format. An example looks like this:
G01 X1 Y1 F20 T01 S500
This breaks down from left to right as:
- G01indicates a linear move, based on coordinates X1 and Y1.
- F20sets a feed rate, which is the distance the machine travels in one spindle revolution.
- T01tells the machine to use Tool 1, and S500 sets the spindle speed.
What are these machines? And how do they work with G-Code?
A variety of Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machines are being used to produce engineered parts. The process of programming a CNC machine to perform specific actions is called CNC machining.
Earlier in the past when CNC was not in action, manufacturing centers were operated manually by Machinists. Computer and automation are kind of ‘bffs’ as usually called by millennials. Wherever a computer goes, automation follows and here it was no exception. These days the only human intervention required for running a CNC machine is loading a program, inserting raw material, and then unloading a finished product.
New machines and CAM software have given us more control than ever to design and make better and more innovative products.
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