Category: Signal Integrity
Losses in PCB Transmission Lines

Losses in PCB Transmission Lines

A PCB transmission line comprises at least two conductors – one for the signal and another for its return path. Complex circuit board nets are the combinations of such simpler transmission line structures. Understanding these structures (microstrip, stripline, and...

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How TDR Impedance Measurements Work

How TDR Impedance Measurements Work

Measuring impedance and checking for faults and discontinuities on different points of a PCB trace is not a cakewalk. This is because impedance is an AC property and cannot be measured like resistance. Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR) impedance measurements are...

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How to Avoid Crosstalk in HDI Substrate?

How to Avoid Crosstalk in HDI Substrate?

Miniaturization of the copper features in electronic circuits results from placing interconnections closely with a high packing density. As a result, crosstalk in HDI PCB substrate comes at play because of the increased coupling between the adjacent signal lines. HDI...

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The Effects of High-Speed Signals in a PCB Design

The Effects of High-Speed Signals in a PCB Design

The designers are constantly challenged to improve the performance of an electronic product. At the same time, the designers need to consider the effects of high-speed signals in a PCB design since continuously increasing clock frequencies and decreasing rise times...

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7 Tips and PCB Design Guidelines for EMI and EMC

7 Tips and PCB Design Guidelines for EMI and EMC

Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is associated with every electronic device we use nowadays. If you turn on your radio set and TV simultaneously, you will experience the noisy disturbance from TV interfering with the radio signal and vice-versa. We can also...

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Understanding Signal Integrity in PCBs

Understanding Signal Integrity in PCBs

When a signal is transmitted, the received signal will always be distorted as a consequence of impedance and other effects. This is why designers work towards minimizing effects on the signal quality. Designers try to achieve signal integrity by limiting the extent to...

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